CogSci-2006: The 28th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society

CogSci-2006 Workshop on Android Science

Humanoids-2005 Workshop: Views on the Uncanny Valley

Android science at Osaka University.

Behavior Oriented Design was developed by Joanna Bryson to make building humanoid intelligence easier.


A video demonstrating macromovements with Repliee Q1, an android modeled after the average woman. [video]

A video demonstrating micromovements with Repliee R1, an android modeled after a six-year-old girl. [video]

The Discovery Channel aired a piece entitled Android Science on Thursday, 24 March 2005 as part of the Daily Planet Goes to Japan. The android is Repliee Q2. [video]


Matsui, D., Minato, T., MacDorman, K. & Ishiguro, H. (2005). Generating natural motion in an android by mapping human motion. Proceedings of the IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems. August 2 - 6, 2005. Edmonton, Canada. [pdf]

Kito, T. and Lee, B. (2004). Interpersonal perception in Japanese and British observers. Perception, 33, pp. 957-974. [pdf]

MacDorman, K.F., Minato, T., Shimada, M., Itakura, S., Cowley, S., and Ishiguro, H. (2005). Assessing human likeness by eye contact in an android testbed. Proceedings of the 27th Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society. Stresa, 21-23 July. [pdf] (Pre-camera ready version)

MacDorman, K. F. and Ishiguro, H. (2004). The study of interaction through the development of androids. IPSJ SIG Technical Reports 2004-CVIM-146 (pp. 69-75), 2004(113). November 11-12, 2004. Tokyo, Japan.

Ishiguro, H. (2005). Android science: Toward a new cross-interdisciplinary framework. The Twelveth International Symposium of Robotics Research.

Ishiguro, H. (2005). Android science. Journal of the Institute of Systems, Control and Information Engineers, 2(2), pp. 47-52. (In Japanese.)

Minato, T., MacDorman, K. F., Shimada, M., Itakura, S., Lee, K., and Ishiguro, H. (2004). Evaluating humanlikeness by comparing responses elicited by an android and a person, Proceedings of the Second International Workshop on Man-Machine Symbiotic Systems (pp. 373-383). November 23-24, 2004. Kyoto, Japan. [pdf]

Minato, T., Shimada, M., Ishiguro, H. and Itakura, S. (2004). Development of an Android Robot for Studying Human-Robot Interaction, Innovations in Applied Artificial Intelligence; Proc. of the Seventeenth International Conference on Industrial and Engineering Applications of Artificial Intelligence and Expert Systems (IEA/AIE), pp. 424-434, May 2004. [pdf]

The following two papers show the importance of maintaining a consistent degree of fidelity in the appearance and behavior of virtual humans with respect to eye gaze.

This paper examines the models used to simulate gaze behavior in the experiment:

Vinayagamoorthy V., Garau M., Steed A., and Slater M. (2004). An eye gaze model for dyadic interaction in an immersive virtual environment: Practice and experience. Computer Graphics Forum, 23(1), pp. 1-1. [pdf]

This paper reports subjectsf responses to different factors in the experiment:

Garau M., Slater M., Vinayagamoorthy V., Brogni A., Steed A., and Sasse M. A. (2003). The impact of avatar realism and eye gaze control on the perceived quality of communication in a shared immersive virtual environment, SIGCHI, Florida, April 2003. [pdf]

The results are reminiscent of Masahiro Mori's Uncanny Valley hypothesis.